People who do not read ‘esoteric’ or mythology related books will
probably not be aware of the numerous strange artifacts and puzzling structures
that can be found all over the world. I would here like to present some of these
to the visitor, without too much of my own interpretation.
- Underwater structures 10 000 BCE
- The Orion Correlation Theory Expanded
age of the Sphinx
- The concavity of
the walls of the Great Pyramid
escape route for the soul of the King?
- Marvellous Masonry
- Drilling, cutting and machining of stone
- The Antikythera Mechanism
- Ancient Telescopes
- The Baghdad Battery
- Ancient 'astronauts'?
- The Palpa Mountains
- The Nazca Lines
- Megaliths - Markers of the Gods?
- Vitrified Hill Forts
photograph in Figure 1 below shows some of the 65 charcoal stencils of human
hands discovered in the Cosquer cave in southern France. Other images in the
cave include 187 of animals and numerous geometric signs in various shapes.
Small handprints of children had also been found in the cave, and a child must
have been lifted by an adult to make a handprint on the rock surface 2.2m from
the ground. The images have been dated to between 27 000 and 19 000 BCE.
Similar images dating back to that period have also been found at the Chauvet
cave in southern France, including images of mammoths and woolly rhinoceroses.
The cave seems to have been used as a source of calcium carbonate
for medicinal purposes, but also as an art gallery as the images would be
protected from the elements. Incredibly, though, the entrance to the cave is
37m below sea level (Figure 2), suggesting that human beings existed long before
the Ice Age. In terms of my theory about a comet strike at the Scotia Plate,
could the European continent have been forced downward by the impact?
Figure 1. Human hand stencils in the Cosquer
Cave, dated to 27 000 – 19 000 BCE [Faga, Discovery!]
Figure 2. The entrance to the Cosquer Cave, 37m below sea level
A graph of the rise in sea level over the past 24 thousand years (Figure
3a below) shows that the sea level was below -40m with respect to the present
level up to about 10 000 years ago, or 8 000 BCE. This confirms that the Cosquer
cave paintings date back many thousands of years and that the dated period of 19
000 BCE is indeed possible.
Figure 3a. Post-glacial sea level [R.A. Rohde, Global Warming Art]
The Cosquer Cave is not the only
evidence of intelligent human life before the last ice age. Discovered in 1968,
these rock formations near Bimini island, dubbed Bimini Road,
have been the topic of much debate, some arguing that it represents no more than
a geological rock formation, while others have no doubt that it is man-made:
“The sizes of the rectangular
formations vary somewhat with the largest about 15 x 30 feet, however, most of
them are smaller, 8 x 10-feet, about the size of small buildings. Their depth
(100-feet) is actually just above the sea level at 10,000 B.C. It is known that
in 10,000 B.C. the sea levels were about 110-feet lower than today, meaning that
these structures were once elevated just above the ancient shoreline. … In
essence, our research showed that the Bimini Road was actually the remains of an
ancient harbor with the stone formation serving as a breakwater and quay. The
discovery of dozens of stone anchors there, with obvious rope grooves on them,
has verified that there were ancient harbor formations in use.”
Figure 3b. Marble Building Ruins (?) at Bimini Road, 30m below
Another contentious underwater site was discovered near the
Japanese island Yonaguni , which according to some represents an ancient
underwater temple, but to others is nothing but natural geological formations.
If man-made, it would likewise suggest the presence of a human civilization
thousands of years before what is generally accepted.
Figure 3c. Yonaguni underwater site – natural rock
formations, or man-made?
The Orion Correlation Theory expanded by Herschel
In 1994 Robert
Bauval together with Adrian Gilbert published his book The Orion Mystery in
which he claimed that the layout of the Giza pyramids represented the Orion
constellation in space. This theory caused quite a stir amongst Egyptologists
but it was not long before the theory was debunked and it now seems to be forgotten. The principal
counter argument was that the correlation between the Giza pyramids and the
Orion constellation was not perfect (see image below).
Figure 4. Not quite a perfect match – Giza pyramids
overlaid onto Orion stars
[Lawton & Ogilvie-Herald, Giza the
In his book The Hidden Records, Wayne Herschel expanded the
‘mapping of the heavens’ idea substantially and managed to align in the order of
30 or more pyramids with corresponding visible stars in the heavens. Some of his
maps are shown below. These demonstrate that the mapping of the pyramids to
corresponding stars was not perfect, but that there may indeed be a correlation
between the pyramid locations and the corresponding stars.
Figure 5. Star/Pyramid Map I [Herschel, The Hidden
Download Larger Image [830 kB]
Figure 6. Star/Pyramid Map II [Herschel, The Hidden Records]
Larger Image [830 kB]
Figure 7. Orion and Giza Pyramids [Herschel, The Hidden
Records] | Download Larger Image
Figure 8. Saqqara Pyramids and Andromeda constellation [Herschel, The
Herschel presents several other ‘star maps’ which the
reader may find interesting.
3. The age of the Sphinx
Figure 9. The Sphinx of Giza
Much has been speculated about the age
of the Sphinx in the Giza complex, specifically following the conclusions of
Lubicz, West and Schoch, that the erosion of the
walls of the Sphinx could only have been caused by prolonged and extensive
rain (see image below).
Figure 10. Rain erosion of the walls of the Sphinx [West, Serpent In The Sky]
This theory has been rejected by Egyptologists in general as it would
otherwise suggest that the Sphinx was built long before the era of the First
Dynasty (3000 BCE). Egypt (the Sahara) experienced significant rainfalls up to
about 6000 BCE, so the Sphinx would have had to be constructed prior to or
during this time frame. Every conceivable alternative form of weathering has
been proposed, but even to the layman it should be obvious that this type of
corrosion could only have been caused by significant rainfall.
Another characteristic of the Sphinx that suggests a much older age is its
size of the head (see images below).
Figure 11. Composition of the Sphinx showing
unusually small head [Jordan, Riddles of the Sphinx, Lehner]
Figure 12. Artist’s impression of the Sphinx, emphasizing
the small head [Bauval & Hancock, Keeper of Genesis]
appears to be little doubt that the body of the Sphinx is that of a lion and one
can reasonably assume that the original structure would have represented a lion
in full. Given the size of a male lion, the Sphinx may have been carved from a
huge outcrop of limestone, which became deformed because of thousands of years
of wind erosion.
Figure 13. Side profile of resting lion
Could the Egyptians
really have had such an appalling sense of proportions? The body of the Sphinx
had been covered by sand for most of its existence, as confirmed by this
photographs dating back to 1849 and 1867, respectively.
Figure 14. Body of Sphinx buried beneath the sand, 1849
[Jordan, Riddles of the Sphinx]
Figure 15. Body of Sphinx buried beneath the sand, 1867
These photographs suggest that the body of the Sphinx had remained protected
for probably thousands of years, while the head would have been exposed to wind
erosion all this time. If the head of the Sphinx had indeed been exposed to
thousands of years of wind erosion, practically all its features would most
likely have disappeared. It appears logical then that at some stage an Egyptian
pharaoh had decided to carve his own image into the featureless protrusion that
remained above the body of the Sphinx. Thousands of years of wind erosion again
implies that the Sphinx dates back to long before 3000 BCE.
Tuthmosis IV supposedly came to power because the Great
Sphinx of Egypt
promised him, in a dream, that he would become king should he
Sphinx’s ruined body.
Tuthmosis erected a
carved stone tablet, now known as his Dream Stele,
between the paws of the
Sphinx, either before restoration started, to justify
himself having usurped
power, or after restoration had been completed. At the top
of the Dream Stele
we find mirror images of a Sphinx which one can assume to be
the shape of the
Sphinx that Tuthmosis had in mind (where else would this shape
from?). From what is visible today, it would seem that he had not
been able to
complete the restoration of the Sphinx.
Figure 15a shows an overlay of a drawing of the Sphinx’s
shape and the Sphinx relief on the Dream Stele. The current shape and
the head is significantly different from what appears to be its
In other words, the original head of the Sphinx must have been
higher and bigger, but most likely lost its facial features and
due to wind erosion over hundreds if not thousands of years. At
some point a
pharaoh named Khafra then decided to re-carve the head in his own
in other words, the Sphinx existed a long, long time before the
Old Kingdom. Do
Figure 15a. Overlay of Sphinx drawing and Sphinx on Dream Stela
For opposing views, you'll find a good summary here
4. The concavity of the walls of the Great Pyramid
photograph rather fortuitously snapped by Brigadier General Groves and first
published in 1929 shows the vertical bisection of one of the sides of the Great
Pyramid as revealed by the sun illuminating only one half of this side. The
Great Pyramid therefore actually has eight sides, not four, but this
hollowing-effect is not visible to the naked eye. It does not exceed 37 inches
on any face of the pyramid. Why would a tomb for a pharaoh have been designed to
have concave sides?
Figure 16. Photograph showing vertical
bisection of the south side of the Great Pyramid [Temple, The Crystal Sun]
Figure 17. Satellite image of the Great Pyramid,
bisected left side clearly visible.
5. An escape route for the soul of the King?
Great Pyramid remains one of the greatest mysteries ever. Its internal
construction is precise beyond comprehension, yet the official reason for its
very existence remains that it was meant as a tomb for a king. Several shafts
were cut with utmost precision at oblique angles through tons of stone. Orthodox
Egyptologists maintain that these shafts were an escape route for the soul of
the king. A robot with a camera was sent up one of these shafts, only to
discover that it was blocked by a small door (see below). A hole was later
drilled through this door, only to find another on the other side. Could this
really have had anything to do with the soul of a king having to pass up this
shaft? Surely, as argued by many, there must be a scientific reason for the
existence of the pyramids!
Figure 18. Internal structure of the Great Pyramid
[Luberto, The Great Mysteries of Archaeology - The Pyramids]
Figure 19. A ‘door’ blocking a Great Pyramid shaft
as filmed by a robot equipped with a camera [Von Daniken, Return of the
Read more about the secret doors here. Some interesting statistics and calculations on the
volume and number of stone blocks in the Great Pyramid can be found here and here.
Apart from the Great Pyramid itself, numerous
ancient structures have been found with masonry that is simply mind boggling.
How did the ancients manage to transport these massive blocks of stone and cut
it so accurately and seemingly effortlessly?
Figure 20. A 120-ton stone in a wall at
Sacsayhuaman, Cuzco, Peru [Alford, Gods of the New Millenium]
Figure 21. A 12-angled stone at
Sacsayhuaman, Cuzco [Alford, Gods of the New Millenium]
Figure 22. Jigsaw puzzle in stone, Sacsayhuaman, Cuzco
[Images of Anthropology]
These megaliths at
Ollantaytambo, Peru, were cut from a porphyry quarry 8km away and 900m above
this site, on the opposite side of a river valley. The blocks, on average
1x2x3.8m in size (mass about 19 tons), therefore had to be transported that far,
down to the valley floor, across the river and then up a steep slope to
Figure 23. Ollantaytambo megaliths
[Hancock and Faiia, Heaven’s Mirror]
Why go to all this trouble,
unless it was relatively easy to do? Can we repeat this exercise today without
the use of modern machinery?
Figure 24. “The absurdly difficult method of
fitting the great granite blocks together” [Picknett and Prince, The Stargate
These blocks almost appear to have been finished off in
Figure 25. Unfinished obelisk (42m, 1200 ton) at Aswan
[Parry, Engineering the Pyramids]
How did they plan to raise and
transport this obelisk? What was this to be used for?
Figure 26. Baalbek foundation blocks
Figure 27. Baalbek monolith
who, what for? Why was this technology lost?
7. Drilling, cutting and machining of stone
numerous ancient sites evidence has been found of stone blocks that have been
‘machined’, drilled or cut with high accuracy that seemingly would require 20th
century tools and equipment. Some of these are shown below.
Figure 28. A carved stone at Puma Punku displaying a
precision-made 6mm wide groove with equidistant drilled holes [Alford, Gods of
the New Millenium, Ingold]
As recorded originally by Flinders Petrie
in 1883, the Egyptians had made use of tubular drills to cut into materials like
granite and other types of stone: “These tubular drills vary in thickness from
1/4 inch to 5 inches in diameter, and from 1/30 to 1/5 inch thick. The smallest
hole yet found in granite is 2 inch diameter." "...there is a still larger
example, where a platform of limestone rock has been dressed down, by cutting it
away with tube drills about 18 inches diameter; the circular grooves
occasionally intersecting, prove that it was done merely to remove the rock.”
It is unthinkable that such an advance technology could have existed in
ancient times. Why is there no trace of such machinery to be found, yet ample
evidence of its former existence does exist? Technology developed by a nation or
group of people will continue to be developed and expanded, but a less advance
civilization who have not mastered the basic principles will in time lose this
Figure 29. Tube-drilled hole in granite [Lawton and
Ogilvie-Herald, Giza the Truth]
30. Tube-drilled piece of granite displaying spiral grooves characteristic of
tube-drilling [GEP, details below].
Figure 31. Granite drill-core [Lawton and Ogilvie-Herald, Giza the Truth]
Figure 32. Drill hole at the
Aswan quarries, 12 inches in diameter and 3 feet deep [GEP].
this can be done with relative ease, but requires sophisticated power tools.
Figure 33. Core drilling at Abusir [Ingold]
The ancients also seem to have mastered a method to saw through rock and
stone, as shown in the image below. There is no indication of the ‘wobbling’ of
the blade that would be associated with a hand-drawn saw. It rather represents
the saw marks left by a rotating blade held steady.
An example of saw grooves found in basalt blocks close to the Great Pyramid
Figure 43.b Additional examples of extreme
masonry, from Giza and South America by Lee Anderson (Thanos5150) at GHMB.
All done with ropes and primitive copper tools, of course.
The ancient Egyptians had the technology to machine vases and other
objects from the hardest materials and in ways that we cannot perform today. The
vase below is described as follows [GEP]:
“At least one piece is so
flawlessly turned that the entire bowl (about 9 inches in diameter, fully
hollowed out including an undercut of the 3 inch opening in the top) balances
perfectly (the top rests horizontally when the bowl is placed on a glass shelf)
on a round tipped bottom no bigger than the size and shape of the tip of a hen's
egg! This requires that the entire bowl have a symmetrical wall thickness
without any substantial error! (With a base area so tiny - less than .15 square
inches - any asymmetry in a material as dense as granite would produce a lean in
the balance of the finished piece.) This kind of skill will raise the eyebrows
of any machinist. To produce such a piece in clay would be very impressive. In
granite it is incredible.”
Figure 35. Description of
incredible machining accuracy in granite [GEP]
objects include a ‘horn’ of schist, a brittle type of rock, machined to have
paper-thin edges, an asymmetric schist bowl with ‘lobes’ (an ancient propeller?)
and an ‘ornamental toilet tray’ of equal complexity. How did the ancient
Egyptians manufacture these, and why was the technology lost? It would be a
challenging task for any modern machinist working with aluminium, not to mention
Figure 36. Schist horn with
paper-thin edges [GEP]
Figure 37. Tri-lobed schist
bowl in Cairo Museum [Lawton and Ogilvie-Herald, Giza the Truth, John Reid]
Figure 38. Schist Bowl [Bodsworth, The Egypt Archive]
Figure 39. Schist bowl
Figure 40. ‘Ornamental toilet tray’ and
representation of missing centre portion [Bodsworth, The Egypt Archive]
overview of ancient stone technology in Egypt can be found here. The images referenced as [GEP] come from this website,
where many more examples and details regarding the pyramids and other structures
are presented. As summarized on this website, the technologies employed by the
ancient Egyptians included the following:
- They had
tube drills - drill bits and the machinery to hold them steady and apply
- They had saws that would cut granite with ease and
- They had the ability to sculpt the hardest of rocks.
- They were accomplished at finishing granite in situ - after a block had been
placed in a wall or on the surface of a pyramid.
- They had the ability
to cut, level and polish granite to a sophisticated degree of flatness.
- They had lathes that would turn and polish granite, schist, basalt, etc (in
ways we have not duplicated).
- They had the means to cut extremely
accurate parallel limestone joints with remarkable flatness over large surface
areas - 35 sq.ft.or more, and apparently had mastered the technique before
beginning the casing of the Great Pyramid at Giza.
- They had the
knowledge and technology to consistently lift, exactly maneuver and delicately
place enormous weights of stone.
- They had the means and motivation to
quarry and move millions of stone blocks.
reliefs shown below have been interpreted by many as some kind of a power tool
(a power drill?) or as ‘lights’. Whatever it represents, it does appear to be
some kind of instrument. It is possible that the serpent symbols may indicate
‘serpent power’ and the size of the operators compared to the other human beings
suggests that the operators may have been regarded as ‘gods’ or ‘giants’.
Figure 41. Egyptian “Power Tools” [Childress,
Technology of the Gods]
Figure 42. “Dendera lights” [Ingold]
The photographs below
show imprints of what must certainly be metal clamps intended to join these
blocks of stone. Scanning electron microscope studies have revealed that the
clamps were poured molten into the imprints, requiring a portable smelter, and a
spectrographic analysis of a clamp found in Bolivia revealed that it contained
1.7% nickel, of which there is no source in Bolivia.
Figure 43. Ancient metal clamps (TL Dendera Egypt, TR Angkor Wat
Cambodia, BL Tiahuanaco, BR Ollantaytambo, Peru) [Hancock and Faiia, Heaven’s
Figure 44. Puma
Punku andesit stone block (note the clamp indentations)
Why was this
An extensive and well worth reading overview of
techniques that may have been used by Egyptians to work these stones can be
found here, under the topics
Rock Properties: Why the ancient Egyptians can carve rock
with stone and copper tools.
Ancient Egyptian Materials: Greywacke (schist)
Ancient Egyptian Stone Vessel Making
Ancient Egyptian Copper Slabbing Saws
Ancient Egyptian Copper Coring Drills
The Tomb of Sabu and the Tri-lobed Ornamental Bowl
Whether these methods could realistically have been used as proposed will be
left for the reader to decide. The question nevertheless remains – why had this
technology been lost? Had it been invented by the Egyptians a couple of
millennia ago, surely they would have continued improving these technologies in
much the same manner that integrated circuits (‘chips’) for computers and
numerous other modern sciences continue to become more advanced with each
passing year. Why do foreigners today have to attempt to unravel the mysteries
of ancient Egyptian technologies if these had been invented by the Egyptians
8. The Antikythera Mechanism
This complex mechanism, found on the wreck of the Antikythera in 1901, has been dated to 150-100 BCE. Although
this date is fairly recent in human history, nothing similar has ever been found
as one might expect. Could this mechanism be a relic from a much earlier date,
preserved through hundreds if not thousands of years, but lost at sea during
transportation? It is believed to have been used to calculate astronomical
positions and would have required advanced mechanical engineering knowledge and
sophisticated manufacturing techniques.
Figure 45. The Antikythera Mechanism [Von Daniken, Odyssey of the
Figure 46. A conceptual drawing of the
device [Childress, Technology of the Gods]
The photograph below shows
cogwheels displayed in the Cairo museum. When were they manufactured, and which
type of metal alloy was used? What were they intended for?
Figure 47. Cogwheels in the Archeological Museum of
The first functional telescopes of the modern era
were invented in the Netherlands at the beginning of the 17th century. The
knowledge of lenses however dates back much further in history, as attested to
by numerous ancient lenses that have been discovered by archeologists, including
the so-called Cairo lens shown below. The Peruvian carving depicting a man with
a telescope and an approaching comet suggests firstly that the ancient possessed
telescopes, and secondly that this telescope enabled them to detect an
approaching comet in time to prepare to depart from Terra Australis and the
Figure 48. The Cairo lens (left) and a 4th century BCE Greek
pottery shard showing man with telescope (right) [Temple, The Crystal Sun]
Peruvian stone showing a man studying the heavens with a telescope, with a fiery
These stones, know as the Ica Stones,
were collected by Javier Cabrera but are generally believed to be a hoax. The
location of the caves and streams in which they had been found has never been
revealed. Amongst the 15 000 stones are images of men fighting dinosaurs.
Remarkable indeed, if the stones are authentic. Could any of these stones be
10. The Baghdad
The curious artifact shown below is usually referred to as
the Baghdad Battery. Several such terracotta jars have been
found, 150mm in height containing a copper cylinder that houses an iron rod. It
has been argued to represent an ancient battery (not universally accepted),
dating from the first centuries CE, and has been demonstrated to produce
electricity using grape juice as an electrolyte. An interesting possibility.
Figure 50. The Baghdad Battery [Childress,
Technology of the Gods]
In Section 1.4
of Terra Australis Incognita above I have argued that the origin of the
fire-breathing dragon myth can be traced back to the ability of the ancients,
known as ‘Serpents’ to other nations, to fly and attack their enemies from the
air with fire. Shown here are several ancient enigmas which may or may not
suggest that the ancients could fly.
Figure 51. El Baul, Guatemala,
Monument 27 (“Ball Player”) - A helmeted man breathing fire [Alford, Gods of the
Figure 52. “Ball player” –
misunderstood technology? Ingold
Figure 53. “God” with a helmet – Mexico Ingold
Figure 54. “Snake god with helmet” [Ingold]
Figure 55. Helmeted man inside a
“dragon” [Ingold], Flying Creature at Candi Sukuh [Troxler]
these carvings and statues represent?
Figure 56. “Star Man” [Sitchin, The Earth Chronicles Expeditions]
Figure 57. Diver / space suit? Space suit? [Von
Daniken, According to the Evidence]
Figure 58. The Mayan Lord Pacal in a flying
Figure 59. Lord Pacal enhanced [Herschel, The Hidden
Helicopter, ‘space ship’ and side view of an aircraft at Abydos, Egypt?
Figure 61. Flying gods – Osiris on his solar boat between the stars,
gods on a cloud at Borobudur
Figure 62. Columbian insects or jets? [Childress, Technology
of the Gods; Coppens]
These ‘insects’ of solid gold discovered in
Columbia seem to resemble modern jets rather than insects which have their wings
on top of their backs. Three German model enthusiasts, Eenboom, Belting and
Lübbers, constructed at first a propeller-driven and then a jet-engine driven
scale model of the ‘insect’ on the right. Both models flew perfectly,
demonstrating that these artifacts may very well represent ancient aircraft of
some kind, as unthinkable as that may be.
Figure 63. ‘Goldflyer’ scale models.
12. The Palpa Mountains
The Palpa Lines appear to
be less known than the famous Nazca Lines (Section 13 below), but are in many
ways significantly more intriguing. There are numerous mountains with flattened
tops, perfectly straight lines running across mountains and valleys as well as
drawings and images similar to those found at Nazca. On of the greatest
collections of photographs of both the Nazca and Palpa sites can be found here – the images below
have all been duplicated from this website.
Figure 64. Were it not for the
uneven surfaces, these ‘strips’ may very well have been landing strips. They
appear to have been created by a giant with a spray gun directly from above.
Could these lines have been created by some kind of airborne machine?
Figure 65. Flattened mountain tops -
landing strips (left & centre)? Note the numerous straight lines crossing
mountain ranges and valleys (right). How were these created, and for what
Figure 66. More crisscross lines
across valleys and mountains
Figure 67. Flattened mountain top – how many tons of rock would
have had to be removed, for what purpose? Note the ‘band of holes’ and the part
at the top that has not been levelled (lighter with woolly appearance).
Figure 68. Band of holes (holes 1m diameter, 1m deep, 1 km long) at Pisco,
For what purpose were these holes created? Graves they were
not, as no bones have been found inside.
Figure 69. Skimmed mountain tops – did they do this just for fun?
These flat surfaces certainly appear to be man-made.
Figure 70. Map of Palpa geoglyphs [Morseski]
Noticeable geoglyphs at Palpa.
Figure 71. ‘Knife’ (left) and
‘Radiant People’ (right, compare to Figure 53 of Terra Australis above)
Figure 72. ‘Radiant’ people elsewhere in the world (see Section 1.4 above)
||Australia [Return of the Gods]
Aldhouse-Green, The Quest for the Shaman]
||Navoy [Von Daniken, Chariots of the
||Russia [Von Daniken, Chariots of the Gods]
Figure 73. “Star” geoglyph at Palpa
“Star” geoglyph above is simply mind-boggling. It was constructed with precision
over a mountainous terrain, seemingly from high above! What could it have been
used for? To impress the gods?
13. The Nazca
The Nazca lines remain one of the greatest enigmas of ancient
times. The map below shows the general lay-out of the famous lines, the largest
of the figures over 200m long.
Figure 74. Nazca map [Morseski]
The purpose of these lines is hotly
debated, the general consensus being that they were drawn for some religious
purpose, to placate or bemuse the gods. If this was not the reason, it would
otherwise imply that the images were drawn to be visible from the sky, and
therefore that human beings could fly in ancient times. The lines are generally
believed to have been created during the last centuries before the Christian
era, but it could be much older, as generation after generation my have
preserved the lines for posterity.
The collection below displays
some important aspects of all these images, namely that they were drawn
continuously, starting at one point and ending at another, but more curiously,
that they all required a “touch-down” and a “take-off”, in a manner of speaking.
If these lines had been created by men manually clearing the lines in specific
shapes, there would have been no need for these ‘approach’ lines, or in fact for
any of the drawings to be continuous. Do these characteristics point to the use
of some kind of machinery (airborne?) to create the drawings?
Figure 75. Nazca collection [Herschel, The Hidden
Figure 76. Nazca spider
Figure 77. Maria Reiche, preserver of the Nazca Lines, at the
14. Megaliths – markers of the Gods?
Megaliths in the context of this
chapter refer to standing stones of enormous size found all over the world,
erected for purposes unknown to us. Opinion appears to be split between two
theories, one being that they were erected for religious purposes only, and the
other that they were erected for astronomical purposes or some other scientific
application. I have included some photographs of monoliths below, for the reader
to consider. Also included are some famous megalithic statues, many of which
must have been extremely difficult for the ancients to manufacture.
Figure 78. Stonehenge - one of the most famous.
in the Stonehenge weigh an estimated 50 tons. It would not have been an easy
task to construct in ancient times, why go to all that trouble?
“In April 1722 a Dutch expedition under Admiral
Jacob Roggeveen became the first Europeans to set foot on Rapa Nui. They named
it Easter Island as they landed on Easter Sunday. They spent one day there, and
reported that the natives worshipped huge statues with fires while prostrating
themselves to the rising sun.” [Prat, Easter Island: Land of Mystery.]
The reference to
‘fires’ may link this culture to Tierra del Fuego and the destruction of Terra
Australis Incognita as argued in Section 1.1.3 above.
Figure 79. Easter Island statues (Ahu-Akivi)
Figure 80. Easter Island statues (Ahu Tongariki)
Figure 81. Moai statues [Alford, Gods of the New
Millennium; Prat Easter Island: Land of Mystery]
Some of these
statues are 10m tall and have been estimated to weigh 82 tons. The largest
statue ever made, El Gigante, still lies unfinished at Rano Raraku. It is 21.6 m
(71.9 ft) long and has been estimated to weigh up to 270 tons. How did they plan
to raise this? The excavation shown in the photograph on the right revealed a
thick layer of compacted volcanic ash. When these ash deposits occurred is not
known, but if it could be determined, it should reveal the youngest age of these
Figure 82. Toltec
statues similar to those at Easter Island [Levy, The Atlas of Atlantis and other
Figure 83. Easter Island Sea Wall [Prat, Easter
Island: Land of Mystery]
Figure 84. Similar
masonry at Silustani, Lake Toticaca [Prat, Easter Island: Land of Mystery]
Does the similarity between the Easter Island and Toltec statues not
suggest that the natives who lived here were exposed to the same influences (of
an older and more advance civilization)? Likewise for the masonry found on
Easter Island as compared to that found at Lake Titicaca?
Several huge monoliths are to be found in New
Zealand. Are these natural rock formations, or could they be man-made
(erected)? If so, for what purpose? Solstice markers?
Figure 85. “The Old Man” and “Rangitata Sentinal” rocks in
New Zealand. [Pearson]
strictly speaking not ‘standing stones’, the Olmec heads are remarkable not only
for their size (3m high, weighing up to 50 tons), but also for their
African-like facial features. Could these rulers indeed have been Africans?
Figure 86. Olmec head No 1.
Europe has numerous megalithic sites, as indicated in the map shown
below. What were these used for?
Figure 87. Megalithic regions of
Europe [Mohen, Standing Stones]
Figure 88. 3m standing stones
Orkney Islands [Phillips, The End of Eden]
Figure 89. Callanish standing stones
(Hebrides Islands, Scotland)
Figure 90. Morbihan Locmariaquer (Brittany,
France), estimated mass 280-350 tons
Kerloas menhir (Brittany, France), 9.5m tall (150 tons)
Figure 92. Rudston Megalith (UK), 7.6m (40 tons) [Thornton]
Much has been speculated
about the origins of the Great Zimbabwe Ruins (Figure 93). Whoever had built
them seems to have been influenced by the same culture that erected standing
stones elsewhere in the world (Figure 94).
Figure 93. Ruins of Great Zimbabwe
Figure 94. Lone monolith at Hill Ruin in Great
Zimbabwe [Africa's Glorious Legacy]
Do these standing stones not
suggest the presence of an older, worldwide civilization?
Vitrified Hill Forts
The vitrified forts
of Scotland and certain parts of Europe pose somewhat of an enigma, although not
necessarily suggesting an ancient age.
fort is the name given to certain crude stone enclosures whose walls have
been subjected in a greater or less degree to the action of fire. They are
generally situated on hills offering strong defensive positions. Their form
seems to have been determined by the contour of the flat summits which they
enclose. The walls vary in size, a few being upwards of 12 feet high, and are so
broad that they present the appearance of embankments. Weak parts of the defence
are strengthened by double or triple walls, and occasionally vast lines of
ramparts, composed of large blocks of unhewn and unvitrified stones, envelop the
vitrified centre at some distance from it.
No lime or cement has been
found in any of these structures, all of them presenting the peculiarity of
being more or less consolidated by the fusion of the rocks of which they are
built. This fusion, which has been caused by the application of intense heat, is
not equally complete in the various forts, or even in the walls of the same
fort. In some cases the stones are only partially melted and calcined; in others
their adjoining edges are fused so that they are firmly cemented together; in
many instances pieces of rock are enveloped in a glassy enamel-like coating
which binds them into a uniform whole; and at times, though rarely, the entire
length of the wall presents one solid mass of vitreous substance.
Figure 95. Vitrified wall
at Sainte Suzanne, France.
It is not clear why the walls were subjected
to vitrification. Some antiquarians have argued that it was done to strengthen
the wall, but the heating actually weakens the structure. Battle damage is also
unlikely to be the cause, as the walls must have been subjected to carefully
maintained fires to ensure they were hot enough for vitrification to take place.
Currently, the most popular suggestion is that the process was a symbolic
demonstration of power, spectacularly removing the seats of a warrior
aristocracy. The dating of the construction of these forts varies from 700 BCE
to 900 AD.
It is not only the possible reason for the vitrification of
these walls that is puzzling, but also how the builders managed to apply such
intense heat over such large surface areas. A good overview of the process can
be found here.